SURVEILLANCE by Ian Anderson
JOINT COMMONWEALTH SOCIETIES COUNCIL OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Terrorism on the mainland of Australia has yet to materialize
and is open to conjecture. Islamic terrorists have been unable
to recruit satisfactorily in this country from either the Muslim
population or the Australian population at large. However, it
remains to be seen what further terrorist strategies may be, and
how they will affect the mainland of Australia.
It is common knowledge both here and overseas that Australia has
some of the most remote coastlines in the world and its main population
is centred on the eastern seaboard. No doubt this hasn't escaped
international terrorists, the infiltration via the sea and our
coasts a very real possibility.
The above analysis doesn't suggest complacency by any means, however
indicates that time is available to build our own responses to
this issue. One response that has previously been mooted but apparently
has fallen on deaf ears is the creation of a national coast guard.
This should be maintained by the RAN and separately staffed by
the Navy Reserve at all levels. Ships and men could be given immediate
tasks of maintaining coastal security and the administration of
Australian and international laws, such as illegal fishing, illegal
immigration and smuggling, the surveillance of coastal shipping,
these are but a few tasks that spring to mind. The Navy Reserve
as it exists would benefit greatly as it would then be purpose
driven, surely a benefit to the Australian taxpayer as well as
It was good to see a report in the Advertiser that an armed vessel
is being prepared to combat illegal fishing in the Southern Ocean
and approaches to Antarctica. Tooth fishing may take a downturn
in the near future.
The Hunley was the first submersible to sink an
enemy vessel in warfare. (February 1864). She sunk the Housatonic
off Charleston, South Carolina, during the American Civil war.
The Hunley was not the first submersible vessel
The first one was the Pioneer, mentioned as early
as 1861, it was of iron, ¼ inch thick, 30 feet long, 4 feet in
diameter with cone ends 10 feet long, a propeller in one end turned
by a crank by two people inside the boat. She never saw action
and was sold for scrap in 1868 at public auction.
The second was the American Diver, 1863. It was
36 feet long, 3 feet wide, 4 feet high with 12 feet at each end
tapered or modelled to make it easy for her to pass through the
water. Again there were cranks fitted to turn the propeller by
hand, worked by 4 men at a time. The next submersible was also
of iron ¼ inch thick, and in order to correct the previous boats
faults it was built with square sides, 36 feet long, 4 feet high
and 3 feet across top and bottom with ends tapered like a wedge,
and driven by a 30 inch propeller. The American Diver was floated
in February 1863 but as the weather grew worse the boat was difficult
to manage and foundered.
The third attempt was the H.L. Hunley. The boat
was launched in July 1863. It was known as fish Boat, the fish
torpedo boat, the porpoise, and then the Hunley.
The boat was of an eliptic shape, with modelled ends. Built of
iron 3/8 inch thick, 40 feet long top and bottom, 42 inches wide
in the middle, and 48 inches high, fitted with cranks geared to
her propeller and turned by 8 persons inside. The dimensions vary
depending on the historical source.
The boat was twice lost in Charleston Harbour with loss of life
and was salvaged both times. On one of these occasions while running
submerged the acting vessel commander, Hunley, made a simple error
in regulating the water contained within the forward ballast tank
and the boat buried its bow in the harbour mud, stuck fast, and
partially flooded, killing the entire crew.
After this tragedy the boat was not expected to be used again
but a Lieutenant Dixon applied to use it against the Federal steam
sloop-of-war Housatonic, a vessel which carried
eleven guns and lay at the time in the north channel obstructing
the passage of the blockade runners for the Confederacy.
A torpedo was fastened to the end of an iron pipe, about 2 inches
in diameter, and twenty to twenty five feet in length, and could
be extended in front and withdrawn at ease by guides in the centre
of the boat to hold it in place.
On the evening of 17 February 1864,the Hunley set out on patrol.
The USS Housatonic was at anchor about 2½ miles
off Charleston Bay and after being struck with the torpedo sank
in about three minutes.
The Hunley and her crew never returned and its disappearance
became one of the sea's great mysteries, remaining unsolved until
the wreck was located in 1995 by Ralph Wilbanks, Wes Hall and
Harry Pecorelli III.
The H.L.Hunley's attack defined to the US Navy the
danger of submersible torpedo craft and demonstrated the vast
potential of the submersible vessel in future naval strategy.
April 2004 was Civil War Week in the USA and there was a service
held for the CSS Hunley at Charleston.
There appears to be a video available "The Hunley"
(1999), and stars Donald Sutherland as General Beauregard and
Armand Assente as Lt George Dixon. Some comments about the video
are - "remarkable feat of engineering of the time", "unknown
story of the Civil War".
Horace Lawson Hunley was a wealthy cotton broker who helped finance
the building of the Hunley and he drowned when he made the fatal
mistake to take the Hunley down himself.
The recovery of CSS Hunley took place on August
Information extracted from several websites. Ref. http://www.hunley.org.
www. history .navv.mil/brahcnes/org - Jean Gill NLASA
COMMONWEALTH SOCIETIES COUNCIL OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA
President attended the AGM and noted that the Navy League SA has
been involved with this Council since early last century.
Contact details of members are -
ROYAL COMMONWEALTH SOCIETY TEL 8223 2907
THE VICTORIA LEAGUE FOR COMMONWEALTH FRIENDSHIP TEL 8223 2914
THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ST. GEORGE TEL 83836318
THE ROYAL CALEDONIAN SOCIETY TEL 83791949
THE ROYAL OVER-SEAS LEAGUE TEL 8332 9559
THE CAMBRIAN (WELSH) SOCIETY . TEL 8370 6500
THE AUSTRALIA-CANADA ASSOCIATION TEL 8297 1133
THE ENGLISH SPEAKING UNION TEL 83791039
THE CORNISH ASSOCIATION OF SA TEL 8388 2338
The Navy League was represented as part of this joint council.
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"Autobiographical Recollections of a Naval Reserve Officer 1893-1987"
Limited Second Edition (100) by CMDR Stan Veale CMG VRD** RANR.
Hard Cover bound 160pp, 81 illustrations colour and B&W, many
from CMDR Veale's
personal family files. A5+ 100gsm. ISBN 0-9580285-6-7. A unique
story about a fascinating lifetime in the Navy from 1909 as a
Naval Cadet, WW1 and WW2 to 1987. Formatted and edited by CMDR
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Royal Australian Naval College and Sir John Collins by CMDR John
Wilkins RFD* RANR. ISBN 0-9580285-5-9.
The early days of the Victorian Colonial and Australian Navy and
the foundation of the Royal Australian Naval College, Osborne
House, North Geelong 1913-15 and Vice Admiral Sir John Collins
RAN. Limited signed Edition of 50 copies, 77pp A4 100gsm hard
The monograph details the original historic mansion, Osborne House,
its floor layouts and Navy use during the 1913-1915 period when
RAN trained its first Midshipmen Cadets.
The publication includes a resume of the 1915 Jervis Bay, 1930
HMAS Cerberus Naval College sites, with a general overview of
the career of one of the first Australian trained Midshipman Cadets
to achieve promotion to Vice Admiral Sir John Collins. $70 plus
"WW2 Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Naval Reserves
Honours & Precedence" by CMDR John M Wilkins RFD* RANR.
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Printed on 100gsm, colour and b&w illustrations. All copies numbered.
Limited signed Edition 50 copies. Edition January 2005. $85 +
Chapt 1. WW2 RANR - RANVR - RANR(S) awards and citations with
some excerpts and photos to give an insight as to the personality
of the person who received the award.
Chapt 2. WW2 RAN awards and citations - Like the RANR section,
some entries have details and photos to permit a better understanding
of the person receiving the award.
Chapt 3. Order of Precedence summary of Australian Awards plus
relevant foreign awards with comprehensive Honours & Awards details,
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known), plus US, Dutch and Allied Awards to Australian defence
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Australian Naval Reserves - 1859 - 2006 by CMDR John M Wilkins
RANR" 6th. Edition (100), Feb 2010. ISBN 978-0-9580285-8-5. Copies
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Appendices: State RANR Port Division Depots, COs DNOs etc; RANR
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Naval Memorial Chapel 1920 - 2002 at FND, History and Legend of
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Uniforms and rank braid 1748-2006. A comprehensive coverage in
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Australian & British Naval Buttons, Buckles Banners Badges & Braid
1748 - 2006 Revised 5th Edition (Limited - 100 copies) Feb 2010
by CMDR John M Wilkins
RFD* RANR. ISBN 978-0-9580285-7-8. Copies numbered and signed
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Hard cover bound $80, Spiral wire soft cover bound $45
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This edition adds revised section on Naval braid, cuffs, cocked
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Over 600 colour illustrations plus a unique White Ensign history
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Not available elsewhere. A brief Naval History associated with
each British and Australian Naval button from 1748 to 2006. Rarity
"Sea & Australia" 6 part video - a specially produced series by
the Navy League to give a better idea of Australia and its maritime
inheritance. On release it was gifted to every secondary school
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Navy League Crest - A high class laser image etched on 150x200mm
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lapel badge. $6 incl postage
Navy League tie . - Royal blue with Red or
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COOK CANNON Miniature replica - Approx 1/10th. scale replica.
unique miniature 22ct Gilt silicon-bronze HMB Endeavour cannon
jettisoned by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 on East Coast of Australia.
Price: Recommended Retail $500. Free post. Limited Edition of
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- 1969, is included.
HMAS Cerberus Maval heritage Museum has sole sale rights
Navy League Journal of NSW 1920 first issues - Facsimile reproductions.
Limited printing - 30 per issue May, June, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec.
Price $15 each - plus $3 P&H in Australia. Stapled - binding tape
Facsimile reprint in colour of the "Souvenir of the Visit of the
FLEET TO AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND 1908" 3rd Edition, originally
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Court Place, Little Collins Street, Melbourne.
Size 24.5x18cms, 34pp, coloured cover with pictures in a dark
sepia colour and each page surrounded with an Orange yellow Australian-American
rope ships flags kangaroo and eagle design. The publication has
a stapled and taped binding. It includes photos of VIPs, fleet
personnel, ships and crew members on board and those marching
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A rare, not often seen, publication that we were able to provide
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